When a person suffers from coughing, congestion, runny nose, and sneezing, a cold is usually the first thought, but not so fast! These symptoms could indicate allergy. So how can you tell if it’s a common cold or allergic rhinitis? Here are some tips.
Common Cold: Identification and Symptoms
A common cold is a virus. There are more than 100 types of cold viruses, according to medical experts. These viruses are contagious and manifest with these symptoms:
- Sore throat
- Runny and stuffy nose
- General aches and pains
- Fatigue and weakness
Allergic Rhinitis: Identification and Symptoms
Allergic rhinitis, unlike a common cold, is not caused by any virus. Hence, it’s not contagious. It occurs when a foreign object (such as dust or pollen) enters the body and is mistakenly identified by the immune system as an invader. As a response, the body releases histamines to ward the allergen off. The unleashed histamines lead to the manifestation of symptoms similar to a common cold.
- Runny, stuffy nose, congestion
- Itchy, watery eyes
- Sore throat (caused by post-nasal drip)
Note that fevers and aches do not accompany allergies. Another key difference is in the duration of symptoms: colds tend to last from 3 to 7 days (and rarely longer than 14 days), but allergies can hang around for as long as allergens are present in the environment.
What to Do?
A common cold can be treated with pain relievers and over-the-counter cold remedies such as decongestants. It is important to get sufficient sleep and drink plenty of water during the recovery process. Talk to your doctor if your symptoms linger for more than 10-14 days.
Allergic rhinitis can be relieved by over-the-counter or prescription antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal steroid sprays. If you or your child suffer from allergic rhinitis, consider a more permanent solution known as allergy immunotherapy (available through shots or under-the-tongue drops known as sublingual immunotherapy).